Thursday, March 31, 2005

quizzes, tests and problem set

The first quiz is now available. The rest of the quizzes and problem set will be made available in the next few days. The first test will be around week 5.

Wednesday, March 30, 2005

Lecture 002: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

We briefly reviewed some nomenclature for aromatics then discussed the Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution mechanism. Two examples of reactions using this mechanism were discussed: Friedel-Crafts and aromatic halogenation reactions.

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Lecture 002 pdf

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Monday, March 28, 2005

Lecture 001 Syllabus

We went over the syllabus and FAQ for the course today. I also demonstrated how to subscribe to the class podcast and to Bloglines.

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There no pdf notes with this lecture.

Wednesday, March 23, 2005


CHEM 243

Course goals and objectives: This is an introductory course to organic chemistry. Detailed mechanisms of several reactions will be covered. Course requirements are CHEM 241 and CHEM 242.

Textbook: Wade (Organic Chemistry, Ed. 5) is recommended.

2 1.5-hour exams 2 x 100
final 200
total 400

Course Information: An FAQ for the class is maintained on this blog and is updated periodically. E-mail the instructor if your question is not addressed in the FAQ.

Make-up test policy: Tests, quizzes and exam will be available on WebCT. Location and times of testing are specified in the FAQ. Quizzes will be available for each chapter but will not count towards the final grade. Make-up tests will be available on WebCT but will consist of additional questions without additional time. The better score between the test and make-up will be used.

Lecture archives: This class can be taken fully online. The class archives are made available by screencasting as streaming audio/video as well as podcast by audio with pdfs to follow along. Students attending the class fully online are encouraged to contact the instructor by e-mail to ask questions or to schedule phone or physical appointments to go over any material that requires further explanation.

Grading Policy: A: 90-100% B: 80-89% C: 65-79% D: 50-64% F: 0-50% (borderline grades are left to the discretion of the professor)

Extra Credit: Up to 1% extra credit is available for students who create blogs discussing real world applications of the reactions we discuss in class. References must be used with at least 2 examples for full credit. Students may not use a reference already used by another student. Students may also use their blog to report on this class in general (i.e. study tips, difficulty of certain material, additional online resources found, etc.) Blogs can easily be created at Since blogs are public, students do not have to use their real names but can if they choose. A list of RSS feeds to the class blogs will be made available on this blog. The deadline for completion of the two examples is the last day of classes. However, students are encouraged to post as early as possible to make use of feedback from instructor. Revisions of the posts based on feedback from the instructor (or other students) is acceptable up to the last day of classes.

Material Covered

Aromatic compounds
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
Mechanism: sigma complex, electrophile
-bromination of benzene with Br2 and FeBr3
-chlorination of benzene with Cl2 and AlCl3
-iodination of benzene with I2 and HNO3
-nitration of benzene with HNO3 and H2SO4
-sulfonation of benzene with SO3 and H2SO4
-Friedel-Crafts alkylation with R-X and AlCl3 or FeBr3
-Friedel-Crafts alkylation with alkenes or alcohols and acids
-Friedel-Crafts acylation with RCOCl and AlCl3 (acylium ion)

Ortho/Para directors
-Ortho directors: R, X, OR, OH, NH2, NHCOR
-Meta directors: COR, CO2H, CO2R, SO3H, CN, NO2, N+R3
-Mechanism of ortho/para direction: Resonance

Reactions at side chains
-Clemmensen reduction of Ar-COR with Zn(Hg)/HCl(aq.)
-free radical halogenation
-permanganate oxidation of ArR to ArCO2H
-SN1 substitution at benzylic halides

Other reactions
-The Benzyne mechanism: reaction of p-bromotoluene with NH2-
-Catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic ring

Ketones and Aldehydes
Carbonyl compounds:
-ketones, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, acid chlorides, esters, amides
-dipole moment
-nomenclature: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzaldehyde, methyl ethyl ketone, benzophenone, acetophenone, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, benzoic acid
-hydrogen bonding with alcohols
-infrared spectra: ketones and aldehydes 1710 cm-1

-secondary alcohols to ketones with Na2Cr2O7/H2SO4
-primary alcohols to acids with Na2Cr2O7/H2SO4
-primary alcohols to aldehydes with PCC
-ozonolysis of alkenes to aldehydes and ketones
-phenyl ketones from Friedel-Crafts reaction
-hydration of alkynes to ketones with Hg2+/H2SO4/H2O (Markovnikov addition)
-hydroboration-oxidation of alkynes to aldehydes with Sia2BH/H2O2, NaOH
-alkylation of 1,3-dithiane followed by hydrolysis with HgCl2 to ketones and aldehydes
-Grignard reagents and nitriles to ketones and aldehydes
-acid chlorides to aldehydes with LiAlH(O-t-Bu)3
-acid chlorides to ketones with R2CuLi

-nucleophilic addition of:
-Grignard reagents to alcohols
-Wittig reaction to alkenes
-hydrates and acetals – use as protecting group
-cyanohydrins then to a-hydroxy acid
-oximes and hydrazones
-oxidation of aldehydes to acids with Na2Cr2O7/H2SO4
-reduction of ketones and aldehydes with NaBH4 or LiAlH4 to alcohols

-primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
-aniline, N,N-diethylaniline, 3-ethylaniline, p-toluidine, pyrrole, pyrrolidine, imidazole, pyridine, piperidine

-imine formation
-Hofmann elimination

-reductive amination
-acylation then reduction
-reduction of nitro compounds
-reduction of azides
-reduction of nitriles (b-hydroxy amines)
-Hofmann rearrangement

Carboxylic Acids and derivatives
-formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric acids, cyclohexanecarboxylica acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acids, alpha and beta
-effect of substituents on acidity

-from primary alcohols with KMnO4
-from alkenes or alkynes with KMnO4
-carboxylation of Grignard reagents
-hydrolysis of nitriles
Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution
-acyl halides, anhydrides, esters, amides; reactivity and preparation
-acid catalyzed and base catalyzed mechanisms for the hydrolysis of esters (tetrahedral intemediate)

-reduction of acids and esters to primary alcohols with LiAlH4
-reduction of amides to amines with LiAlH4
-reduction of acid chlorides to aldehydes using LiAlH(O-t-Bu)3
-formation of amides from amines and acid chlorides
-formation of esters from alcohols and acid chlorides
-formation of acids from water and acid chlorides
-formation of anhydrides from acids and acid chlorides
-formation of ketones from organocuprates and acid chlorides (Grignards give alcohols)

Enols and Enolate Ions
-Mechanism of alpha substitution (base and acid catalyzed)
-the haloform reaction
-aldol condensation (base and acid catalyzed)
-dehydration of aldol products
-aldol cyclizations
-Claisen condensation
-malonic ester synthesis
-acetoacetic ester synthesis
-Michael addition